Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Section 2 is about the web; it is the overall arrangement of interconnected PC organizes that transmit information by parcel exchanging utilizing a standard arrangement of correspondence conventions called TCP/IP or transmission control convention/web convention. It is a system of systems that is comprised of a large number of private, open, business, scholastic, and government systems from neighborhood to worldwide degree. The Web is an approach to get to data over the vehicle of the Internet. The Web likewise uses the utilization of programs, for example, Internet Explorer, Safari, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Dolphin and Opera. They are utilized to get to information, for example, photographs, recordings, motion pictures, games, music and text. The Internet get to is an assistance that gives access to the worldwide arrangement of interconnected PC systems known as the Internet. Open places that utilization web incorporate libraries, bistro, schools, relax, lodgings, shopping centers, coffeehouses, air terminal corridors and some more. We will compose a custom paper test on Web/World Wide Web or on the other hand any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The various sorts of correspondence are through Electronic Mail or E-mail, Instant Messaging, Social Networking, Blogging, Microblog, and Wiki. Email is a strategy for trading advanced messages from a sender to a collector. Texting is a type of correspondence over the web that offers a quick transmission of text based messages from a sender to another in any piece of the globe. Long range informal communication is an online help, stage, or website that centers around building and reflecting of interpersonal organizations or social relations among individuals who offer intrigue and exercises. Blogging is a blend of what's going on in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is another term for online journal. Microblog is a kind of blog that permits clients to distribute short content updates. Bloggers can as a rule utilize various administrations for refreshes including texting, email, or Twitter. Wiki is a kind of administration that permits clients to unreservedly make and alter what is written in the web. Web crawlers are sites or programming that scans the Internet for records while a Metasearch motors are specific web indexes that are particular about what it would look around the web. Web based business is the demonstration of purchasing and selling products or administrations over the web. It likewise comprises of the trading of information to encourage the financing and installment parts of business exchanges. It is otherwise called E-Business. Internet Business Models are Business-to-business (B2B), Business-to-shopper (B2C) and Consumer-to-buyer (C2C). Online installment alludes to an exchange in the online trade of reserve. It is a system based electronic budgetary, business card exchange for a wide range of electronic apparatuses and media. Electronic installment framework is the reason for inline installments, and online installment framework advancement is a higher type of electronic installment. The normal electronic installment frameworks are Internet Bank Card Payment System, E-Cash Payment System, E-Purse Internet Payment System, and E-Check Payment System. Distributed computing is characterized as a model for empowering advantageous on-request arrange access to a mutual pool of configurable registering assets that can be quickly provisioned and discharged with insignificant administration exertion or specialist organization communication.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Crime scene investigation Team Essays Crime scene investigation Team Essay Crime scene investigation Team Essay Paper Topic: Analytical Crime scene investigation Team Name: Course: Teacher: : Date: Crime scene investigation Team The Computer Forensics Team The term criminology is related with the utilization of innovation and science in criminal examinations. Thusly, PC crime scene investigation alludes to PC related proof. To have a PC legal sciences office in an association, a PC criminology group is a required factor. The size of such groups differs proportionately with that of the association size and the jobs that the gatherings are relied upon to complete in the association. A little association may require multiple authorities while bigger ones may involve a greater group to meet various necessities. A scientific group can't be made and prepared inside a brief period and in this manner a ton of persistence should be seen before efficacious job execution is noted. Gifted masters are elusive and associations need to create in-house pros or re-appropriate explicit help. The way toward sustaining in-house ability can be troublesome in light of the fact that it commands in any event one master to prepare the other cooperative individuals with respect to taking care of data innovation in the association as identified with criminal issues. In this way, experts should be re-appropriated. Alert must be taken not to fuse in-house data innovation experts in the making of a legal division. This is on the grounds that the organization may think it is following up on cost effectiveness by turning away the preparation overheads to other organization exercises; it might mean acquiring further misfortunes because of absence of unprejudiced nature with respect to the data innovation staff. A PC legal operator or authority ought not approach any of the associations offices, particularly the IT area. A qualified possibility for the post of a measurable master ought to have a solid IT foundation, insightful information and aptitudes. Moreover, one ought to likewise h ave a huge information on an assortment of scientific strategies, instruments and emerging circumstances. Crime scene investigation Lab Different lab instruments and gear are required to perform arranged measurable assessments. Obtaining of these devices requires a lot of assets just as arranging time. After the group is effectively settled, it will ponder and distinguish kinds of equipment, working frameworks, programming and conditions they might want to break down. Thusly, this will empower them to decide required devices for the various jobs. The research facility ought to be situated in a safe area away from any danger like burglary of devices and hardware since the preparing factor is normally very expensive. Lab security ought to likewise be adequate to give less interruptions and protection during activity meetings attributable to the delicate idea of the work. A scientific workstation or two are additionally important for the lab, with the incorporation of compact gear to help hands on work and field works out. As the gear might be exorbitant, legitimate correlation of costs and a money saving advantage examination ought to be finished to decide the best apparatuses for wanted jobs. Legitimate licenses should be acquired for programming to maintain a strategic distance from bothers. The association ought to likewise ponder on the need to buy lab instruments or to redistribute required administrations from different organizations, for example by offering tenders or looking for a few citations. Notwithstanding the firm being a data innovation association, it is profoundly difficult to have all the ideal scientific instruments. Apparatuses that may end up being unreasonably exorbitant for the firm perhaps re-appropriated in explicit periods while reasonable devices are effectively bought. Most devices require specific administrators who comprehend and this factor ought to be redistributed for cost effectuality. The association needs to comprehend that the obtaining procedures and examination of PC based proof is hard along these lines requiring various measures of assets, arranging and specialized mastery. In this manner, the association would require appropriate necessities appraisal towards deciding if to support in-house data innovation ability or redistributing completely qualified experts. References Hitting, S. (2007). EnCase Computer Forensics, Includes DVD: The Official EnCE: EnCase Certified Examiner Study Guide. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. Solomon, M.G., Rudolph, K., Tittel, E., Broom, N., Barrett, D. (2011). PC Forensics Jumpstart. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons.
Danny and the Ring Essays Danny and the Ring Essay Danny and the Ring Essay Despite the fact that the spring Sun was out and about in large numbers. the air current despite everything made DannyÃ¢â¬â¢s nose so chilly that it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t quit running. The climate forecaster said that it was making a trip to rain in this manner. in any case, so far the daylight made him squinch his eyes as he strolled. Each twenty-four hours. Danny must be busy working by 7:30 in the forenoon. furthermore, he had neer been delinquently. He strolled up the solid stairss to the entryway of the memorial service place simple. taking consideration non to stumble on the in the middle of measure. which had a major split in it. At the point when he got to the entryway. he cleaned his olfactory organ with his arm. thus mishandled for his specific key. There wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t whatever else in his pocket. yet, Danny still mishandled in any case. A moment in this manner. he took the key which was on a long shoe ribbon twine and opened the overwhelming wooden entryway. wincing at the squeak that slice through the quiet of the cool April forenoon. Danny took his occupation actually genuinely. what's more, was sensibly acceptable at it. The compensation was bounty to help pay for his room at the Special House where he lived. furthermore, he preferred his old buddy Dr. Jacob that worked with him in the basement. Jacob showed up at the memorial service place each twenty-four hours about an a large portion of a hr after Danny got at that place. He thought Danny was a decent youngster. what's more, he loved the way that despite the fact that he had Downs Syndrome. Danny took to the occupation great. One thing he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t comprehend is the manner by which he made it each forenoon at the equivalent precise clasp as expected. Jacob took a shot at the natural structures ground floor. getting them handled and prepared for sing. Danny would come in and brush. swab. also, overall tidy up the workshop. The initial twenty-four hours that Danny came in to work. he saw Jacob connecting hosieries to a natural structure. Danny was stunned. however extremely unagitated and understanding. craving to compute out definitely what Jacob was doing. After Jacob attempted to give Danny an outline of what he was making and why. Danny only disclosed to him that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t secure it. yet, that he was a hell of a doctor. After that. Jacob had become Dr. Jacob. Danny was at that point began when Dr. Jacob had shown up that forenoon. The bucket was drawn with new hot sudsy H2O. also, a large portion of the floors had just been cleared. Danny was obtaining the swab prepared when Dr. Jacob got off the lift. Danny welcomed him with his praised grinning. furthermore, went to disturb his manus as he did each forenoon. Hands are for the most part full today Danny. permit me gain over to the counter and globule off my material. The unfertile smell of cleaner grouped in with the waiting methanal drifted itÃ¢â¬â¢s way around Dr. JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s olfactory organ and told his encephalon that it was clasp to get to work. He dropped off his jacket and tiffin thus went to Danny. who was standing by calmly for his forenoon handshaking. Here ya travel Danny. what's more, an acceptable forenoon to you exorbitantly. They shook authorities and Danny had returned to work again. The quietness was grievous down at that place in the keep. as it was at times called. Dr. Jacob went to get down up the Mr. Espresso. thus turn on the remote. You realize you can turn this on when you arrive Danny male kid to give you a few songs to work to. redress? Dr. Jacob said. Not till your here Dr. Jacob. No remote till your here. Your java is about prepared. Got the opportunity to obtain back to work now. Danny grinned with his entire face. eyes what not. He turned and snatched the swab and started to dunk it and chiming it out. procuring prepared to wipe up the changing area. That was the room that Dr. Jacob couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t base. He could take a shot at the dead. treating natural structure liquids and what non. without instability. Be that as it may, there was something eldritch about securing them dressed for the last clasp. complete with hair dosÃ¢â¬â¢ and all that he simply couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t belly. That occupation was left to the dull feline. Joe. He was gone before six each twenty-four hours. what's more, got at that place at roughly ten at dim. Joe accomplished sensibly great work. indeed, even made up the women with lip rouge what not. be that as it may, Dr. Jacob attempted to maintain a strategic distance from the entire nation on the off chance that he could. He put some cream pitcher in his java. furthermore, turned up the remote a spot. what's more, took a seat at his work area to rethink the records that accompanied every natural structure. He was taking a shot at his second cup when he heard Danny cry. Dr. Jacob hopped up. inclining his java on his white sterile garment. furthermore, went to the changing area. He had neer heard Danny roar that way. also, he thought something was extremely off base. He strolled however the double entryways and discovered Danny sitting in the corner. influencing to and fro. Danny. what was the deal? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s erroneously? Please up Danny male kid. state me whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on? The woman said she required her chiming back. She said give it back to her. She was a peevish woman. Danny. thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no 1 else down here however you and me. The lift hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t moved each of the twenty-four hours. There canÃ¢â¬â¢t be any woman in this basement. Did you gain frightened by one of the natural structures down here? Do you want to travel place? No. I will secure back to work. Your right. Larissa is gone at this point. IÃ¢â¬â¢m remorseful Dr. Jacob. Danny tidied himself off and got the swab. also, fired right up again the last known point of interest. Dr. Jacob took a long articulation around the room. be that as it may, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see anything strange. Danny had quieted down. about as though nil had occurred. Dr. Jacob shook it off and returned to his work area. what's more, chose to name Joe and ask him on the off chance that anything had been going on the dim previously. The telephone rang multiple times. so a shocked voice was on the other terminal. Hi? This should be of import. IÃ¢â¬â¢m kiping. Hello Joe. this is Jacob down at the spot. Anything eldritch happen last dim? No interference ins or anyone spying about in the basement changing area? What? No grown-up male. Simply worry of course. Had two biddies to make up last dim. For hell's sake. it was kinda moderate. Something going on for sure? No. Danny got went crazy. Said something regarding some woman named Larissa that needed her ringing back. I looked about and at that place ainÃ¢â¬â¢t figure else in here however us. The entryways upstairs dosenÃ¢â¬â¢t loosened until ten in the forenoon. I only idea you may of known something. Travel back to bed Joe. in the event that anything comes up I give you a cry. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll come in early today. investigate the topographic point out. See ya Doc. Dr. Jacob hung the telephone over into topographic point and got up to get down chipping away at the principal customer of the twenty-four hours. At lunch period. Danny went place. furthermore, Dr. Jacob went upstairs to investigate in with the chief. He referenced what occurred with Danny. also, inquired as to whether he knew anything about a miss named Larissa. The chief had no idea. in any case, inquired as to whether it was such a decent idea holding Danny working at that place. especially with his ain key. Dr. Jacob went outside with the chief to the stopping bunch. where the massive old SwannÃ¢â¬â¢s mark stood. The Sun had concealed itself behind a thick mass of mists. furthermore, the air current had prepared another indent. There is nil off base with Danny working here. he does a snake pit of an occupation. I took him on so ya. heÃ¢â¬â¢s my obligation. In the case of something occurs. itÃ¢â¬â¢s on me. Dr. Jacob stood his property as meager dots started falling on the clearing of the stopping clump. Up until now. there hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been any employments. in any case, similar to I cautioned you from the beginning. The principal cut he messes up. heÃ¢â¬â¢s gone. the chief huffed. I got you. there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be any occupations. JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s coming in early only to investigate everything out. so I may stop around a little stone dirt he arrives. On the off chance that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind. The chief feigned exacerbation. balanced his suit. what's more, strolled once again into the spot. Dr. Jacob contemplated holding a smoke. in any case, the downpour genuinely began kicking in. what's more, it was securing colder. He chose to head back in to work. At the point when he got off the lift and set out toward the work even exhibit. he thought he heard individual snuffle. He shouted to see who was at that place. Danny came out from around the bend. with a surprising appearance all over. Danny. I thought you went place. What are you making here? I returned to help Larissa. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like to see a woman call. Would we be able to give her back the ring now? Dr. Jacob clarified that there was figure at that spot named Larissa. furthermore, he knew nil about a ring. Danny approached on the off chance that he could stay for some time and articulation for LarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s ring. what's more, despite the fact that everything in Dr. JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s head let him know non to. he revealed to Danny that he could. A couple hours therefore. the telephone rang. Dr. Jacob addressed it. Hello Doc. I was accepting about what you asked me before. furthermore, one of those biddies I did last dull had a toe ring on it. I took it off when I put her places on. what's more, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I set it back on. Cause you to accept a family unit part came searching for it or something? Mabey thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what cracked Danny kid out. Look on the highest point of the array rack. IÃ¢â¬â¢m gon na obtain another hr of shut oculus in before I descend. Dr. Jacob revealed to Danny where to look. furthermore, they found the ring. Danny headed toward one of the natural structures and put the ring on the little finger. Danny gazed toward Dr. Jacob and gave him one of his praised smilings. I think sheÃ¢â¬â¢s upbeat at this point. Much thanks to you Dr. Jacob. Danny jumped on the lift and headed up. Dr. Jacob checked the name on the natural structure. Laurie Essa. Larissa.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Less numbers without language Less numbers without language The individuals who consider themselves to be as number individuals than word individuals may be astounded to discover that their comprehension of numbers is really reliant on language. New research has discovered that, without language, it is difficult to appropriately fathom bigger amounts. The discoveries originate from an investigation, distributed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a hard of hearing network in Nicaragua. With no information on Spanish or formal gesture based communication, these individuals have made their own marking framework; however it doesnt incorporate jargon for numbers. This is in spite of the way that they live and work in a numerate society. During the tests, individuals from the gathering regularly forgot about explicit numbers over three. In one test, members were approached to react to taps on the hand by tapping a similar sum back, however they would in general be out by a couple. Theyre not fiercely off, says Elizabet Spaepen, the lead analyst. They can rough amounts, however they dont have a method of getting to the specific number. Despite the fact that people have been appeared to have an inborn numerical comprehension, we are just normally capable at seeing little numbers and evaluating enormous ones. We need words so as to overcome that issue. What language does is give you a methods for connecting up our little, precise number capacities with our huge estimated number capacities, says Daniel Casasanto, a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands. Furthermore, we wouldnt be the place we are today without this crucial connection. It has been the instrument that offered ascend to the general public we live in, Casasanto says. The high rises we work in and the PCs that were chatting on right now these things are conceivable on account of accurate huge number and people capacity to control them. An interesting point next time youre dealing with your portfolio, adjusting your checkbook, or sharing out MMs in the workplace.
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
Essay Question Example Essay Question â" Essay Example > ContentIntroductionOverview of a modern capitalist societyUnderstanding individualism and collectivism Discussion of the extent to which the capitalist society should be organized according to the individualist values rather than the collectivist values. Conclusion Introduction A capitalist society is one that has an economic system whose basis is on private ownership in regards to both the means of production and the process of creation of goods and services for the purpose of making profits for business enterprises that are privately owned. A capitalist society may take different forms, which include state capitalism, mixed economies and laissez-faire. Since time in history capitalism has undergone revolution with political economists, economists and historians all over the world taking different perspectives as far the analysis of a capitalist society is concerned (Christian 2007, p. 113). To a very high degree, the organization of modern capitalist society is seen to have char acteristics of both individualism and collectivism. However, the big question arises as to what extent the capitalist society should be organized according to the individualist setup rather than the collectivist setup. To begin with, individualism implies to the organization that encompasses the promotion of and exercises an individualâs objectives and desires hence reflecting the value of self-reliance and independence. With this organization, there is greater opposition of any external influence or interference by the society as far as an individualâs interests are concerned (Swart and Koenraad 2007, p. 80). On the other hand, collectivism is the kind of organization that shows greater emphasis on the existence of interdependence in the society. With this, organization groupsâ goals are prioritized over personal individual goals with the promotion of cohesion within the groups in the society (Triandis and Harry 2001, p 59). Contrary to individualists, collectivists have th eir focus on the nation, community or society. Through out history, both individualism and collectivism have been seen to exist in diverse types of economic and educational, government and political philosophies. The elements of individualist and collectivists have been contained in most societies. The extent to which the modern capitalist society should be more individualistic rather that collectivistic relates highly to the matters of policy and politics. It is quite a fact that the society moves towards liberalization day after a day (Gray 2008, p. 66). This is evidenced by the fact that quite a number of political ideologies have cropped up supporting capitalism in the modern world from the perspective of liberalization which is understood to relate more to individualism (Louis 2003, p. 24). In the contrary, collectivism is understood to stifle the aspects of diversity and individuality through the emphasis placed and stressed upon common social identification for instance nati onalism. The implication is therefore that for the people in the modern capitalist society to enjoy democracy and their individual rights it should be more focused to the individualistic organization than to the collectivist organization. In the modern capitalist society, there exist class systems which are understood as to relate to a certain level of economic nature. The capitalist class constitutes self-made men and it is only open to people who have quite essential individual qualities (Christian 2007, p. 116). This concept relating to social classes in the society is seen to be more closely related to the organization of the society from an individualistic point of view. Today, individual people are seen to be more attached to their own personal welfare rather than to the social groups in which they are part. It is with no doubt that, from an economic perspective, these people have their class interests they want to attach themselves to, with the freedom of being part of any group if they wish to. In this case, within the sphere of modern capitalism the aspect social mobility is demonstrated. Against this is a good example of the caste system in India whereby there no promotion of an individualistic society (Triandis and Harry 2001, p. 67). It is therefore crucial to have the modern capitalist society to uphold individualistic perspective in order to enable individual to exercise their won freedom as they wish.
Saturday, June 27, 2020
Abstract: Human Trafficking is one of the widely spreading pandemics in todays world. While the United States have been on the list of top countries in the world, it is unfortunate that this country also suffers from the plague like Human trafficking. Although, U.S. generally serves as a destination country, it doesnt make the issue any simpler. The Department of State rates the country as Tier 1 on the tier system which means that the country is enforcing suitable laws against human trafficking. This paper reviews the current situation pertaining to human trafficking in the United States and the legislations which are being implemented to reduce the severity of it. Keywords: human trafficking, slavery, sex-trafficking, prostitution, labor trafficking, trafficking victims protection act (TVPA) Introduction: One of the greatest human rights violation in todays world is human trafficking and it has been growing on an alarming rates. Human trafficking represents one of the greatest violations of human rights today. Every year, 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked across international borders, 80% of them are females and about half of them are children (Trafficking in Persons Report,2004). This epidemic is so complicated since it has various flows around not just neighboring or within countries but across different continents. In 2014, the amount of different trafficking flows was more than 500 (Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, 2016). United States is mostly a destination country and hardly an origin for trafficking. According to the annual report from United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), most of the victims who are brought into North America are from East Asia, the Pacific, Central America and the Caribbean. The Foundation of Federal human trafficking legislation is Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) 2000 which provides a ways to prosecute traffickers, combat human trafficking and protect the victims. According to the Department of Justice, trafficking in persons is defined as; 1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sext act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or 2) The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. (22U.S.C. ?Ã § 7102(9)). (Key Legislation, TVPA 2000) So, we can say its a modern-day form of slavery. Although trafficking could be of various forms, more than 90% constitutes of labor and sex trafficking (Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, 2016). Human trafficking is a federal crime in the United States and this is being constantly monitored by different federal agencies. The U.S. department of state has established office to monitor and combat human trafficking and they are required to publish a Trafficking in persons report every year detailing each countrys anti-trafficking efforts and then tier-rating them according to that information. Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) 2000 and subsequent reauthorizations: As mentioned above, TVPA is a federal policy which was introduced in 2000 in order to combat human trafficking in the United States and internationally. To make sure that TVPA is being implemented appropriately, an Interagency Task Force was also created under this act. In addition, this act allows trafficked victims to stay as a temporary resident in United States under T-Visa and after 3 years they can apply for a permanent residency in the country. TVPA has been amended four times since it was enacted in 2000. In 2003, Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization act (TVPRA) was introduced which extended the rights of victims to prosecute their traffickers including viable restitution and their protection against deportation. This re-enactment also allowed human trafficking to be charged under Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization (RICO) statute (Polaris, 2016). Additionally, it was made imperative that Attorney General report to the U.S. congress every year on the actions to combat human trafficking. In 2005, TVPRA included few more provisions in this act. TVPRA of 2005 focused on the protection and sheltering of the survivors of human trafficking, extended provisions on sex tourism and added various grant programs to have state and local enforcement fight this issue. Moreover, government agencies were advised to not do any contracts with companies who might be involved in trafficking. In 2008, TVPRA of 2008 was presented which included comprehensive details and definitions of different types of trafficking. It was mandated that government needs to provide workers rights information to all the people who are coming to United States for work or education (Polaris, 2016). New human trafficking data reporting systems were added and protections within T-Visa was extended. Another mandatory addition to this act was that Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) unit of FBI would start collecting data on human trafficking which is a principal unit for gaging crime in the United States (Farrell Reichert, 2017). Lastly TVPRA of 2013 introduced the Violence Against Women Act as an amendment which launched programs to confirm that products made by trafficked victims in different countries are not being purchased by U.S. citizens. This sanction also announced emergency response by the state department towards the disaster struck areas where there is a possibility of trafficking. Furthermore, familiarized state and local police department collaborations to prosecute traffickers (Polaris, 2016). According to the U.S. Department of State, penalties for performing an act of trafficking and benefiting financially or otherwise are quite stringent which includes mandatory restitution and time in prison depending upon the seriousness of the crime (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2018). Effectiveness of the TVPA legislation: When we talk about human trafficking, we generally jump to sex trafficking because how media portrays it. Movies like Taken suddenly comes our minds but it is far more complicated than that, and while sex trafficking and forced labor are the main forms of trafficking constituting 79% and 18% respectively, the remaining 3% is other forms such as forced begging, removal of organs, forced marriage, child soldiers among others (Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, 2016). The trafficking cases are investigated by the Department of State, Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice and assistance is provided to the victims while investigations and prosecution of such cases. It is quite an accomplishment for the United States to be a Tier 1 country for about 10 years but are we a Tier 1 country in all authenticity? These tiers were designed by the U.S. Department of State and so does the TVPA. The Trafficking Victims Protection Law is transnational legislation which is designed by the United States but countries who fail to comply or make significant efforts against human trafficking are rated poorly on the tier system. There has been significant debate and doubt about whether the U.S. government is doing the right thing by enforcing their laws onto other countries (Hendrix, 2010). Another issue with TVPA is that criminal justice system holds main position in assessing and concluding the position of the victim (Clawson et al. (2003). The purpose of TVPA is stated as 3-Ps i.e. Prosecution, Prevention, and Protection but how can we accomplish that when the lives of trafficked persons are the based on global market controls and their major goal is to provid e food and shelter their families. Trafficked people are typically considered as criminals more than victims in the situations, they are usually found. Most of the trafficked people are from countries with dreadful economic distress which has lured them into the world of international trafficking in the first place and if the law enforcement treats them as criminals which can result in deportation following incarceration will certainly suffer again (Noyori-Corbett and Moxley, 2016). If the victim fails to prove that they have been subjected to a severe form of trafficking, authorities usually just send them back to their countries which would put them in difficult if not lethal situations. Another concern is that United States have been making it a criminal justice issue while it comprises of severe human rights violation. Since the enactment of TVPA in 2000, human trafficking has been a hot topic for lot of researchers but surprisingly there are no significant findings on the topic and the reason for that would be di fficulty with acquiring the exact numbers and deficient data cannot yield the results which are useful in making amends. One of the outrageous realities of the human trafficking in the United States is that U.S. diplomats and international organization employees are found to guilty of trafficking of domestic workers. This issue wasnt addressed until the 2008 William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims protection reauthorization act. Criminal prosecution with respect to trafficking is very rare in the United States despite the 2008 reauthorization act and the main reason is strong immunities. Vandenberg and Bessell (2016) found that criminal prosecutions were likely to be brought against representatives with lesser immunity. In severe cases, U.S. government ask for immunity waiver for prosecution and one of the examples of such cases is the U.S. v/ Khobrabade (2014). In 2013, Devyani Khobrabade (Deputy Consul general of India) was arrested by the U.S. Diplomatic Security Service for making false statements to obtain a visa for her domestic worker and didnt pay her according to the U.S. minimum wage standards. It was found that Indian government officials tried to make false statements on Khobrabades diplomatic immunity status which blew up this diplomatic case even more. Khobrabade is an international fugitive and is subjected to immediate arrest at arrival in the United States. This is one of the 3 cases which h ad been filed against the Indian consulate in New York. Unfortunately, most of the cases are not even reported which gives more power to the traffickers (Vandenberg and Bessell, 2016). According to United Nations, 71% of all trafficking victims are women and girls. Women are mostly trafficked from different countries and generally for sex trade and domestic servitude. These women most likely are going to face problems with respect to the language, laws of United States and for sure would need someone who understands them and would be able to represent them despite concrete evidence in most cases. The Human Trafficking Legal Center in Washington D.C., a team of pro-bono lawyers and researchers works towards this issue by fighting for the victims of human trafficking. There are many conditions which needs to be met before a woman is certified as severely trafficked and even when they meet all the criterion of being one, they are usually afraid that the government is going to retaliate which keeps them from co-operating (Noyori-Corbett and Moxley, 2016). Since human trafficking is measured by UCR primarily, it was found that cases were underreported and the ones which were reported contained many false positives. In 2017, Farrell and Reichert found that very few human trafficking cases were identified and prosecuted but UCR crime reporting can be improved by identifying human trafficking is identified as part- I violent crime and adding it to the crime reporting programs in all the states, incentivizing reporting of the human trafficking cases and providing more enhanced trainings for law enforcement officials. Keeping adverse psychological, social and legal consequences should be the most important factors to address when framing the eligibility criteria in determining victim certification (Noyori-Corbett and Moxley, 2016). Social and economic factors play a big part in someone who has been trafficked. Shame is something which is associated with women who had been trafficking in many countries which can keep them from leading a norm al life. This is one of the reasons that restitution is so important in cases of Human trafficking but unfortunately it hardly ever collected (Levy and Vandenberg, 2018). What makes traffickers choose America? Traffickers all around the world especially from South America and South Asian countries choose United States as the destination country because they are aware of the effect of the great American Dream. The easiest way to lure people into trafficking is to show them the best side of America and that includes the better currency and better lifestyle. Since the trafficked victims are mostly women and children from developing or underdeveloped countries, they are usually under the impression that they are just getting a job to support their family or children but instead they are traded for either forced labor or sex. These people have no idea about the language, laws, currency, and American culture which makes it easier for the traffickers to get away with it. In some of the cases where the trafficked person does get a chance to go to the court, the process of certification is so lengthy that most of the victims are not even able to collect their restitution. It has been seen that rest itution orders have been decreased significantly between 2014-2016 (Levy and Vandenberg, 2018). David v. Signal: Every year hundreds of people are trafficked to the United States for various purposes but mainly for labor. After the destruction created by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Many Indian workers were lured into working at the shipyards by assuring them that they will be able to get a permanent residency in U.S. The company Signal International is a marine and fabrication company with shipyards in multiple states. They also serve as a contractor for multiple Multi-national companies (ACLU, 2013). Approximately 500 workers were trafficked into the country on federal H2-B visa (Temporary guest worker visa) and were forced to live in foul conditions, coerced labor, and were threatened of physical harm if they tried speaking against the employer. The passports and remaining travel documents of these workers were seized by the hiring agents at the marine industry company, Signal International. The agents also forced them to pay an additional hefty amount of fees for recruitment , visa processing and travel arrangements. These men were compelled to live at the companys congested labor camps where they were abused psychologically and were repeatedly denied compensation for their work (ACLU, 2013). In 2008, Signal international was sued on by the 12 plaintiffs who were trafficked by the company. The case was represented by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) along with other pro-bono law firms. In 2012, it was ruled by the federal judge in New Orleans that the cases are supposed to be brought in individually against Signal International. So, in 2013 mass lawsuits against the company was filed accusing them for violation of TVPA and RICO. In 2015, after 4-week trial, jury decided that the company along with a New Orleans lawyer and an India-based hiring agent were engaged in labor trafficking, racketeering, discrimination, and fraud. Signal international along with its representatives were ordered to pay $14 million to five of the total victims. Following David v. Signal International, many pro-bono law firms started to work for the victims of trafficking in United States to serve the traffickers right (ACLU, 2013). Conclusion: It is imperative that the above-mentioned issues are kept in consideration in incoming TVPA reauthorizations. It has been found that in developed countries, taking economic and social welfare actions for trafficked women can help in combatting trafficking much more than the developing countries but this reflects that by working on the socio-economic status of trafficked women we can achieve better results (Noyori-Corbett and Moxley, 2016). The goal of future research should focus on the social, psychological and economic factors affecting vulnerable people in different countries since TVPA affects not only United States but also other countries. There are pros and cons to a transnational legislations and it could be really helpful if the focus is on pros more than cons of such legislations. United States have the power to steer in the direction which is most effective ways to combat human trafficking and other countries will follow to stay in the good tier ranking. We should also fo cus on the relationship between human rights community and law enforcement and how they can work together to work on this issue. The programs which were developed to help victims and combat human trafficking clearly not practical enough which is why this issue needs rigorous empirical research which could be the base for future programs such as investigating the relationship between immigration policies for different countries and key factors which affects one to be susceptible to trafficking. There should be training set ups for statewide law enforcement to have a better understanding of the human trafficking cases. Bibliography: American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (2013). David, et al. v. Signal International, LLC, et al. Retrieved November 25, 2018, from https://www.aclu.org/cases/david-et-al-v-signal-international-llc-et-al Clawson, H. J., Small, K. M., Go, E. S., Myles, B. W. (2003). Needs assessment for service providers and trafficking victims (OJP-99-C-010). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Current Federal Laws. (2016, October 17). Retrieved November 12, 2018, from https://polarisproject.org/current-federal-laws Farrell, A., Reichert, J. (2017). Using U.S. Law-Enforcement Data: Promise and Limits in Measuring Human Trafficking. Journal of Human Trafficking,3(1), 39-60.doi:10.1080/23322705.2017.1280324 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons(Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2018, from https://www.unodc.org/documents/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf Hendrix, M. C. (2010). Enforcing the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act in emerging markets: The challenge of affecting change in India and China. Cornell International law Journal, 43, 173Ã¢â¬Å"205. Key Legislation TVPA 2000. (2017, January 06). Retrieved November 12, 2018, from https://www.justice.gov/humantrafficking/key-legislation Levy, A. F., Vandenberg, M. E. (2018). United States Federal Courts Continuing Failure to Order Mandatory Criminal Restitution for Human Trafficking Victims(pp. 1-26, Rep.). The Human Trafficking Legal Center. Noyori-Corbett, C., Moxley, D. P. (2016). A transnational feminist policy analysis of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. International Journal of Social Welfare,26(2), 107-115. doi:10.1111/ijsw.12217 Trafficking in Persons Report(Rep.). (2004). Retrieved November 12, 2018, from https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/index.htm U.S. Department of State. (2018, June 28). Trafficking in persons Report (2018). Retrieved November 12, 2018, from https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2018/ Vandenberg, M. E., Bessell, S. (2016). Diplomatic immunity and the abuse of domestic workers: Criminal and civil remedies in the United States. Duke Journal of Comparative International Law,26(3), 595-633. Retrieved November 12, 2018, from https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/djcil/vol26/iss3/6/
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Unless you can answer with numbers, to respond to questions like how many? youll probably need to use one of the Spanish adjectives of quantity. An example of an adjective of quantity in English is many in the phrase many dogs. The adjective comes before the noun and tells how many. It is the same in Spanish, muchos perros where muchos is the adjective of quantity. Like most other non-descriptive adjectives, adjectives of quantity usually come before the noun they refer to (just as in English), or they can come after a copulative verb. And like other adjectives, they must match the nouns they refer to in number and gender. Here are the most common adjectives of quantity with examples of how they are used: algÃ ºn, alguna, algunos, algunasÃ¢â¬âsome, anyÃ¢â¬âAlguna vez, voy al centro. (Some time, I will go downtown.) Pasaron algunos coches de policÃ a. (Some police cars passed.) Ã ¿Tienes algunos zapatos? (Do you have any shoes?) Nearly all the time, the English any in sentences such as the example is left untranslated into Spanish. For example, Are there any watermelons? becomes Ã ¿Hay sandÃ as?ambos, ambasÃ¢â¬âbothÃ¢â¬âAmbas compaÃ ±Ã as crearÃ ¡n una empresa internacional. (Both companies will create an international enterprise.)bastante, bastantesÃ¢â¬âenough, sufficientÃ¢â¬âEn mi ciudad hay bastantes iglesias. (In my city there are enough churches.)mucho, mucha, muchos, muchasÃ¢â¬âmuch, manyÃ¢â¬âLos medios de comunicaciÃ ³n tienen mucho poder. (Communications media have much power.) Ella tiene muchos gatos. (She has many cats.)Ã¢â¬âTypically, this word is translated as much when singular and many when plural. In informal usage, you also can tra nslate as a lot of.ningÃ ºn, ningunaÃ¢â¬ânoÃ¢â¬âNinguna persona serÃ ¡ atacada or ridiculizada. (No person will be attacked or ridiculed.) In Spanish, it is far less common to use ninguno or ninguna as an adjective than to use no as an adverb with the main verb, thus negating the entire sentence. Thus, I have no shoes would typically be stated as no tengo zapatos.poco, poca, pocos, pocasÃ¢â¬âsmall, little or slight; fewÃ¢â¬âHay poco pan. (There is little bread.) Hay pocas uvas. (There are a few grapes.)suficienteÃ¢â¬âenough, sufficientÃ¢â¬âTenemos equipos suficientes para las inspecciones. (We have enough teams for the inspections.) Bastante is more frequently used than suficiente. Suficiente frequently follows the noun.tanto, tanta, tantos, tantasÃ¢â¬âso much, so manyÃ¢â¬âJamÃ ¡s habÃ a comido tanto queso. (He had never eaten so much cheese.) En AmÃ ©rica Latina nunca han existido tantos pobres como ahora. (In Latin America there never have existed so many poor people as now.)todo, toda, todos, todasÃ¢â¬âeach, every, allÃ¢â¬âTodo americano lo sabe. (Every American knows it.) Todos los perros van al cielo. (All dogs go to heaven.) Use of todo or toda in singular form as an adjective isnt particularly common. Todos or todas is quite often used in plural form before the definite article, as in the example.unos, unasÃ¢â¬âsomeÃ¢â¬âUnos gatos son mejores cazadores que otros. (Some cats are better hunters than others.)varios, variasÃ¢â¬âseveralÃ¢â¬âJavier tenÃ a varios coches. (Javier had several cars.) Note that many of these adjectives are frequently used as other parts of speech, especially pronouns and adverbs. For example, poco can also function as an adverb meaning not. For example: Es poco inteligente. (Shes unintelligent.) Sample Sentences Using Adjectives of Quantity Hemos reunido muchas firmas, pero no son bastantes para hacer la peticiÃ ³n. (We have gathered many signatures, but they arent enough to make the petition valid.) Necesitamos observe lo que ningÃ ºn ojo puede ver. (We need to observe what no eye can see.) Ã ¿Tiene este hombre tantos amigos como enemigos? (Does this man have as many friends as enemies?) Los padres nuevos suelen preguntar si sus bebÃ ©s dormirÃ ¡n toda la noche alguna vez. (New parents keep on asking if their babies will sleep all night some time.)